Volume 1

OpenMandriva Lx 2014 OMA Lx 2014: Installation and configurations

, by Garatti Davide

This manual is intended to be a simple step by step guide for the installation and configuration of the newly installed Openmandriva Lx.

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1- FEATURES OpenMandriva Lx 2014

ProgramReleaseNote
Kernel "3.13.11" "nrjQL"
KDE "4.12.4"
Libreoffice "4.2.3"
Firefox "29.0"
Amarok "2.8.0"
Gimp "2.8.10"
hplip "3.14.3"
Digikam "3.5.0"
Glibc "2.19"
rpm "5.4.10"
Usefull Link:
Home page http://www.openmandriva.org
Forum http://forums.openmandriva.org
Bugzilla http://issues.openmandriva.org/
Mirror Status http://downloads.openmandriva.org/mm/
Release Note https://wiki.openmandriva.org/en/20...

The ISO can be put on USB sticks thanks to hybrid ISO, see relative paragraph

2- Installation of the basic system

2.1- Existing Configuration

  1. A system with Win NT, 2000, XP, Vista, Seven or greater.
  2. System with Win 95,98, ME
  3. A system with no Operating System

In the first two cases there should be a free partition available for installing Openmandriva Lx. In order to make this possible, one could use a program like Partition Magic, utilities of Windows®, or the OpenMandriva partitioning application. It is recommended to run a defragmentation of the Windows® partitons first before any attempt to resize or edit them, in order to simplify the resizing process.

If you do not have any Operating System (third case), just proceed with installation.

2.2- Hardware detection

The majority of the peripheral devices, external (printers, scanners, modems,etc), or and internal (EIDE, SATA, SCSI, video cards, sound cards, etc), are recognized and easily without much difficulty. However, Some difficulties can arise with recently released hardware technologies.

It is possible to test your hardware’s compatibility in the LIVE mode of the installation DVD, but its suggested to always to make a search on internet of the various components of your system. Pay special attention to information about your graphics card, and not to give anything for granted.

2.3- Preliminary checks

Once you have identified the partition on which to install Linux, it would be better to get information on your hardware, in particular mode about the type of:

  • video card
  • Sound card
  • Chipset mother board
  • Any SATA drivers
  • Printer
  • Special devices (USB HDTV, etc.)
  • Etc..

Note: The important information is not the name or brand of the card, for example the video card’s model, but rather the name of the chipset and GPU mounted on it. Is always a good idea have the most information possible about your hardware. Omit this step does not imply any problem with the installation, but it serves, more than anything else, to understand eventual problem in advance.

2.4- Flow diagram of installation

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2.5- Installing the Operating System

Set the BIOS’s option “PNP OS installed” = NO

NOTE: To access the BIOS press the specified key on the screen during the earliest phases of system startup.
The buttons can usually be F10, DEL—depends on the BIOS manufacturer.

If you have a device with UEFI BIOS it is better to make sure, via Internet, on any procedures to install a new operating system.
Also check any issues about Secure Boot option.

2.5.1- Downloading the ISO images

The ISO images for the installation of OpenMandriva Lx can be found on the official site
http://www.openmandriva.org

The ISO file will also be accessible directly through the various mirrors
The state of the mirror can be checked via the following link

http://downloads.openmandriva.org/mm/

(What you download is an ISO image of OpenMandriva Lx 2014, keep in mind which will be compatible with your system.For example, is your system 32 (i586) or 64 bit (x86_64)?

The ISO Image is to be burned on a DVD media or inserted into a USB device .

Typically you have a choice of “write the ISO image to CD or DVD” in your burning program .

NOTE
It is a good idea to download the small text file which contains the MD5 checksum, Usually programs’ burning have the possibility to check the checksum on the downloaded ISO file.
If it is not so, or you are going to insert ISO file into a USB stick, then you can use the command “md5sum .iso” and then check with that downloaded from the site.
If the string matches the download, then it was successful without errors. If not, trying re-downloading the files from the internet .

Coming from Windows, you can download a free program from http://www.winmd5.com/ to perform the calculation and subsequent verification.

I council to burn the ISO image to DVD at a low speed (8x - 10x), especially if you are using rewritable media .

Set the ISO to USB Pen

The ISO can be inserted into a USB stick with ability = or > to 2G in the usual way :

1 ) Download the ISO image of OpenMandriva Lx you want.
2 ) Insert the usb stick , verify what device has been engaged, with the dmesg command (you have to look for sdb , sdc , or otherwise) .
remember the device name without taking into account the number.
The device must not be mounted.
4 ) Go to the directory that contains the ISO image
5 ) Become Administrator ( su )
6 ) Give the command:

dd if=OpenMandrivaLx-2014.0.x86_64.iso of =/dev/sdx bs=4M

Where:
OpenMandriva-2014.x86_64.iso is the name of the ISO file you downloaded
/dev/sdx is the device associated to your USB stick

so for example :
dd if=/home/[insert user name here]/Download/OpenMandrivaLx-2014.0.x86_64.iso of=/dev/sdx bs=4M

The USB pen obtained, can be used to perform installations , or just try OpenMandriva.

NOTE: To use the Live mode you must have 1.5 GB of ram or more

Note:
If you do not have a Linux system to perform the procedure or you prefer a convenient graphical interface , you can use the program developed by Rosalab called :

Rose - ImageWriter

you can download it from the following link:

http://wiki.rosalab.ru/en/index.php...

and it is available for the following Operating System

  • for Windows ™ (3.6 Mb)
  • for Linux 32 -bit (11.7 Mb)
  • for Linux 64 -bit (11.6 Mb)
  • for Mac ® OS X (7.7 Мб )

Simply select the ISO and the USB device ... and you press the “Write”

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2.5.2- Installing directly from Live DVD / USB

Insert the DVD or USB flash drive on which you downloaded the ISO image and boot the system.

Press the function key to launch the boot menu that now all PCs have, which allows you to select the device from which to boot, usually ’ “F8” .
In the case your PC is dated, you need to set the BIOS to external media from CD / DVD / USB or E-SATA .

The installation of OpenMandriva Lx 2014 is very simple, and results in a time varying between 10 and 25 minutes .... depending on the performance of the PC and the reader / writer used during installation.

The first screen allows you to choose the type of boot available,
refer to the two methods of “direct installation” or “post-installation”, plus a section about troubleshooting, as well as for disk and memory controls.

Start OpenMandriva 2014
Install OpenMandriva 2014
Install OpenMandriva 2014 basic graphics mode

troubleshooting

The first entry starts OpenMandriva in Live mode (only memory )
and the others two entries will be used to directly install our new operating system.
If you do not have a too old system, use the second option (default). if you have any problem to install with this option, you can try with the third option.

In this chapter we will see how to install the OS directly, then choose the item:

Install OpenMandriva 2014

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You will need to wait some time for the start of a base of support to the installation program:

Here are the steps in sequence:

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1 ) Select your language, press NEXT
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2 ) Accept the license agreement, then press OK
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3 ) Choose the Time Zone
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4 ) Select the correct time
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5 ) select the appropriate layout of the keyboard, and press Next
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6 ) Select the first items if you have a printer, select the second item if you want to share directory and files, and select the third item if you want to have access to the PC via ssh
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7 ) In this step, you choose how to partition the disk.

If you do not have others Operating System or you do not have special needs, partitioning the disk using the “Erase and use entire disk” option.

This simplified display will be very useful in case of re-installation (with partitions already made​​) or installation on an empty disk.

I would still recommend always the third option "Custom Partitioning" with which we have the following advantages:
  1. Increased awareness, of the operations that we are making.
  2. The ability to have a more accurate management of the various partitions and hard disks, which are present in the computer.

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This program is very intuitive, just click on one partition and see in addition to the various information about it, you’ll see the commands you can use, such as the “delete partition” to “format”, etc...

You need to create, at least:

  • A root partition, with mounting point set to “/” (EXT4 file-system - [*])

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  • A swap partition, with a size typically double the RAM. If you have 512MB or more, you can set the size of the swap partition to the value of the ram installed.

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then:

RAM (MB)Swapnote
<512 RAM x 2
512M 512MB
1G 512MB or 1G  [**]
>1G 512MB or 1G  [**]
>1G equal to the installed memory  [**]
only to allow hibernation

What we need to do is essentially assign to all partitions, even those “Windows®” a mount point (mount). It ’absolutely necessary to have a Linux partition with mount point “/”

CAREFUL NOT PERFORM ANY OTHER ACTIONS ON Windows® PARTITIONS (Press Only “POINT OF MOUNT” and assign a path /mnt /windows or /mnt/disco_C rather than /Disk_C or /Disk_D.)

In case you want to use the swap for hibernation process, set the swap memory to exactly the same amount of memory installed in the system, for example if you have 4G RAM, then set 4G of memory swap .
Swap =1G is fine for normal use

I remind you that in case you had already set the swap to a lower value, and you want to still use or you want just try the hibernate process, you can use a swap file.

http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread....

Some prefer to create a partition “/home” ( EXT4 file system ) which will house the default directories of the users. You should do it in case you want to leave intact your documents and settings.

It is a good idea to create a backup of your data (possibly in another partition or better still another disk if available, and given that , personally, I prefer to see the default settings of the new versions of KDE and OpenMandriva Lx, it has become my habit to not use a separate partition for /home.
Make your choice based upon your needs.

If you have space you can create partitions for backups or a partitions with FAT32/NTFS filesystem to share files among Windows ®, and Linux .
This is to facilitate the ability to view your files while you are using Windows® , since Windows® cannot read EXT4 partitions, while Linux can read Windows® FAT32/NTFS ones.

NOTE: # Name of the devices EIDE (PATA) and SATA #
The names of the devices depend on the type of interface and the type of controller (PATA and SATA), usually the HD and CD / DVD drive connected to the EIDE interfaces are devices hooked to HDx. Where x stands for the first letter available .
This means that, in the case of two connected HD PATA IDE interface 0 and two CD-ROM on the first IDE interface, we have the following devices:

PATA (IDE)Mater/SlaveDevices
IDE 0 Master hda
IDE 0 Slave hdb
IDE 1 Master hdc
IDE 1 Slave hdd

SATA disks use the devices instead Sdx and then if we had another SATA disk device that would be attached to the SDA.
In both cases, the next number in the sequence of letters specifies the partition on the hard, pay attention because these numbers can also be non-contiguous.

When you have completed the partitioning process press “Done”.

A new window will remember to you which partition will be formatted, please pay attention it is the right one.

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8 ) Press “Next” to start formatting the partition and the actual installation of the OS

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Start the installation of the system, we’ll just have to wait for a time that depends on the overall performance of the system on which you are installing OpenMandriva Lx 2014

At the end of the installation process will reach the last step, namely the installation of the boot loader ....

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9 ) Reduce the wait time before boot if there is no other OS Installed on the system (3 Seconds is fine). Press “Next”

Note: If you are installing the Operating System On an E-Sata HD then outside, or if you have a bay for more HD, remember to select the boot device for it.

In this way you can use the PC’s boot manager to select the device, without affecting in any way the main HD / internal.

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At this point you will be prompted to reboot the system and remove the installation media (DVD or USB pen drive that is)

Then press the “Finish”

Reboot System

There will be only two items and an unified menu for entering any boot options. The Boot Openmandriva 2014 Lx option will be the default load option unless prompted otherwise.

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To complete the installation process we need to follow others few step, from OpenMandriva Lx 2014 has been added a step to remove the unused packages, it could be take some minute depend from your hardware, if you prefer to finish the installation early, you can jump this step

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10 ) if you want to remove unused packages press “NEXT”

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11 ), here’s where we’re going to mask the password of the system administrator. Insert it and press the button “Next”

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12 ) We will insert all the data related to the first user. The others can be added later. Please note that the first user is an “admin user” (wheel user).

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13 ) We reaffirm the choices made earlier.

The installation of OpenMandriva Lx is over; you just have to enter the user password you just entered and access the KDE desktop.

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2.5.3- Boot DVD Live and installation
NOTE: To use the Live you must have at least 1.5 G of ram

To install after launched and tried the Live, you simply need to select the boot entry:

Start OpenMandriva 2014

As usual you have to wait a bit to the base system starts ....
The steps are almost identical to those we have already seen in the previous section.

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1 ) You choose your language

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2 ) Accept the license agreement

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3 ) You set your time zone

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4 ) choosing the time

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5 ) select the keyboard mapping

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6 ) Select the first two items

7 ) Do expect to get into the KDE4 desktop from which we can launch the installation wizard.
Programs that are in tools section of the menu.

The steps are those shown in chapter Direct Installation with Live DVD

2.5.4- Upgrade from previous version

I almost always advise against direct upgrade from one version to the next distribution, except for special reasons or evidence.

The operation will work fine, but there are too many variables that could derail the operation.
The operations that we often do on our systems, and we forget, (installing programs, various configurations, etc.), but also update libraries and programs based on continuous and heavy development (see KDE), may lead to the need to resolve conflicts between installed packages and those yet to be updated.

However, those who want to engage in this experience will be enough to replace the repository with the next upgrade.
Remember to perform a final update of the current version of the operating system, in order to provide the replacement and upgrade of the repository to OpenMandriva Lx 2014.

2.5.5- Removing unnecessary packages

Since the Live installation includes every driver, you must now remove those that are unused by your system. Thus, one of the first things to do is ¨remove the packages unusable.¨

Then open a terminal and become an administrator
[davide @ iron] $ su -
Enter the root password
[davide @ iron] # remove-unused-hardware
complete the steps ....

You will be able to select to remove “unused hardware driver” and unused localization.

Press OK

You have to wait until the entire process is finished.

Note:
Please note that, you have to perform this action before to install the nVidia proprietary driver.
If you have already installed them, you need to restart the installation procedure.

3- Configuring ADSL

Leaving aside the configuration of a connection to the internet via regular phone line, in the following paragraphs I will discuss, in broad terms, the configuration of ADSL lines.

Notes:

  1. Prefer ADSL router with Ethernet interface.
  2. In the case of routers on loan for use, it would be better to look specifically for one with an Ethernet interface. (now they all are so)

Perform a search on the internet for seeking guidance specific to your hardware (routers, etc.) and also for your provider.

By now all providers supply their device with capabilities router / switch, Ethernet connections, and consequently most of the time everything is resolved by inserting the Ethernet cable into the RJ45 socket of the PC; the system is already set up to receive the address and other information via DHCP.

3.1- ADSL Ethernet

Typically you access the ADSL line via an ADSL router with an Ethernet connection, in case there is provided a USB device, is better to request specifically a rooter with Ethernet interface (or both interfaces).
With an ethernet device, everything is resolved with the connection of the network card to the router via RJ45 Ethernet cable and, the usual configuration of the network card.

So you can manage directly you connection via Network Manager

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click on the icon and press Manage connections who open the following window.

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The network adapters are recognized perfectly, so from the outset there is already an interface configured via DHCP, and already connected.

Selecting the connection and pressing the Edit button you can change the name, or the characteristics of the connection (for example by setting a static IP address)

The various tabs refer to the various types of interfaces that we have on the PC (fixed, wireless, mobile, etc.)

Note 1:
If you want to set the host name you can change it here /etc/hostname, but if you want to use a graphical interface use MCC/Networks and Internet/Set up a new network interface
Choose Wired (ethernet)
Next
Select Ethernet inteface
Next
Select IP mode (static or dinamic, leave as it is)
Next
here you can find your hostname, change it

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Change it as you want

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Complete with Next, Next and still Next then Finish

Note 2:
In case you’re into an enterprise network, you also need to configure the proxy that will allow you access to the outside world. Alway via MCC/Networks and Internet/Proxy Select the item and choose the appropriate way to configure the system (via url or directly via the IP address and port)

3.2- ADSL USB

In this case, look for guides on the net relating to your devices, often you have to install some packages, and additional drivers.

Typically, the support is good, but to avoid any problems, it is better to inquire first on the compatibility of the device with the Linux operating system.

3.3- GPRS/HSDPA Via USB devices

These type of USB devices are GPRS or HSDPA. They are provided by virtually all providers, and allow fast access to the Internet on any portable and non-portable devices.
The first consideration is actually always the same, you must inquire about the model of the USB stick, and its compatibilty with Linux. All providers have different hardware suppliers and are able to provide you different models. So far I have only been able to test some devices including

“Huawei E169 HSDPA”.
And the key station 2 of the Vodafone K3806-Z

Of course, they could be models not available in other countries.
However, if the device is compatible, the procedure will deviate only slightly from the description.

You usually need to insert the device, and wait for a moment and then begin the configuration using the Network Manager widget in the system tray, cliccking on the last icons:

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The steps are few, totally driven, and intuitive.

Let’s see them!
Create a new connection “Mobile Broadband” and start the configuration process
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The key should be inserted already been recognized. If you see this already in the dropdown menu there will be problems, otherwise look on the internet the information on your device.

Press “Next”
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We select our country, and press “Next”

Used to narrow down your options later.
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We select the service provider, in this case Vodafone, and press the “Next” button
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This option is perhaps the most difficult to evaluate the pull-down menu offers some options for the data plan, and it is best not to make mistakes, as is clearly stated in the note.

In the case of Vodafone’s key station 2 option is the “Default” then continue the configuration by pressing the “Next”

Also ensure that your contract carefully to avoid problems
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You will see a summary screen that we will actually finish the setup process.
So one last Click on the “Finish” button

The setup procedure is finished now just turn it on when needed.

Every time we will want to make an internet access,
we will simply insert the USB device, wait a moment, go to the Network Manager and press on the item Vodafone in the list of connections.

The LED in the device will change color depending on the type of connection available, and depending on the device model.
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The devices and the operators are so many, as so the configuration procedures, and so it may be possible to list all in this manual.
So it is always with this advice: inquire at least the parameters to be included (and the presence of any PIN).
The procedure configuration remains simple.

Note: Before you buy a device, it is better make a search on the internet to check the compatibility with Linux, especially on newer devices.

3.4- ADSL via WIFI

The procedure is as simple as connecting to the physical Ethernet with RJ45, if the interface is recognized and configured, you will find into the connection manager just saw the wireless card enabled.
The connection can also be configured by pressing the icon on the system tray, at the bottom right in the main panel of the desktop.
In these interfaces will find all detected networks, we will just have to choose our, or that you want, and complete the necessary information, as usual.
It is usually sufficient for:

  • Cipher mode
  • password (encryption key)

4- SYSTEM UPDATE (security and bug fix) (ADSL)

The upgrade system allows you to eliminate known vulnerabilities, fix software bugs that have been resolved, and update drivers, programs, and libraries.
To make this possible, you will need to perform some operations that will allow us also to take advantage of a virtually unlimited amount of software packages.

Immediately after installing the system, I always suggest to do an update.

OF COURSE IT IS NECESSARY TO A FAST INTERNET CONNECTION (DSL)

Note:
If you wanted to delete all previously set repository, use the command:

urpmi.removemedia -a

4.1- Configuration of the various repository OFFICIAL

After finishing the installation, the official repository will already be set, however, in this section I want to describe how you can configure them from scratch.

From OpenMandriva Control Center (Configure your computer)
section:

"Management Software"

choose the item:
"Configure the sources for install and update"

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In case there are undesired media to remove, use with the appropriate button.

To insert the new on-line ones, press ADD
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Verify that your Internet connection is active (if it is not activate it) and accept to contact the website by pressing YES
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After a phase of download, there will be presented to you a list of configured repositories.

Please note that not all repositories are ENABLED, and especially the principal ones (which really should not change) do not have the check mark on UPDATE.



Depending on the version of OpenMandriva Lx, we installed a set of repository that may be different from other versions.

Then press OK,

If, for any reason you want to force update selection on main, contrib
open a terminal become an administrator with the command
su
Enter the root password
give the command
drakrpm-edit-media --expert
that will reopen the same window as before but this time we will be able to perform all the necessary changes.

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In particular, we are going to select the UPDATE even on Main sources ie main, contrib, no-Free

in addition you can also enable the Restricted sources.

Press OK to complete the operation

Note I am using a 64bit system; you see in the image more sources than you would find on a 32bit system.
This is due to the presence of sources 32bit as well as the 64 bit ones..

If not, we can add the repository 32bit manually see paragraph: 4.1.2

4.1.1- Enabling the source locked

If you have followed all the steps in section 4.1 this section is not necessary.

Some repositories are locked for update, and through the usual interface in MCC, you can not unlock them. To enable them to do this, you must issue the following command from a terminal (as administrator).

[root]#drakrpm-edit-media --expert
will open the usual form in which, however, we can enable the Update option on all repositories.
Use only if you have real needs and reasons.

4.1.2- Add the sources 32bit on 64bit systems

Open a terminal as an administrator and run the following commands:

urpmi.addmedia main32 http://abf-downloads.rosalinux.ru/openmandriva2014.0/repository/i586/media/main/release/
urpmi.addmedia main32_updates http://abf-downloads.rosalinux.ru/openmandriva2014.0/repository/i586/media/main/updates/
urpmi.addmedia non-free32 http://abf-downloads.rosalinux.ru/openmandriva2014.0/repository/i586/media/non-free/release/
urpmi.addmedia non-free32_updates http://abf-downloads.rosalinux.ru/openmandriva2014.0/repository/i586/media/non-free/updates/
urpmi.addmedia restricted32 http://abf-downloads.rosalinux.ru/openmandriva2014.0/repository/i586/media/restricted/release/
urpmi.addmedia restricted32_updates http://abf-downloads.rosalinux.ru/openmandriva2014.0/repository/i586/media/restricted/updates/
urpmi.addmedia contrib32 http://abf-downloads.rosalinux.ru/openmandriva2014.0/repository/i586/media/contrib/release/
urpmi.addmedia contrib32_updates http://abf-downloads.rosalinux.ru/openmandriva2014.0/repository/i586/media/contrib/updates/

then, if you want to enable all the update selection for all the repository with

[root]#drakrpm-edit-media --expert

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Select all.
4.1.3- Add the MIB sources

We can also add the MIB repository, in which we can find additional packages, updates and much more.

http://mib.pianetalinux.org/blog/

The repositories are:

32bit systems

urpmi.addmedia --update MIB-basic http://mib.pianetalinux.org/MIB/omv2014/32/basic/
urpmi.addmedia --update --raw MIB-experts http://mib.pianetalinux.org/MIB/omv2014/32/experts/

64bit systems

urpmi.addmedia --update MIB-basic_64 http://mib.pianetalinux.org/MIB/omv2014/64/basic/
urpmi.addmedia --update --raw MIB-experts_64 http://mib.pianetalinux.org/MIB/omv2014/64/experts/

The repository “expert” is not yet available, but you can check the following link:
http://mib.pianetalinux.org/blog/re...

4.2- System Updates

NOTE: Once the repository configured the system will warn you of the presence of any updates in complete autonomy, by displaying a small icon in the system tray (OpenMandriva Online).

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Pressing it will request the USER password. In the window that opens will present the list of packages to update.

If you want to change the user password requirement, the original setting, or the root password, read the following paragraph:

Configure authentication for instruments OpenMandriva

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We need only to press the UPDATE button and confirm the update in the next window. After downloading and installing the updates window will be empty so we can close the window by pressing EXIT. The small icon will change color

and will disappear after a few seconds.

You can also upgrade the system from the terminal of course .....

Open a terminal and become an administrator, after that, run the following command.

[root@GOLD davide]# urpmi  --auto-update

the system will update the lists of internet repositories, check for updates, download, and install complete autonomy ...

when the operation is complete disconnect from the internet (if necessary).

NOTE: Sometimes it is possible that the signatures of packages to be installed are not correct; this only happens when you give the command by adding the following option:

"--no-verify-rpm"

then:
[root@GOLD davide]# urpmi  --auto-update --no-verify-rpm

NOTE: ADSL connections are not bad for updating your system. In practice everything is resolved with the same command

[root@GOLD davide]# urpmi  --auto-update

An update frequently has multiple benefits: firstly it is always up to date for both bug fixes and software updates for security, and the number of packages to be installed will be low thus the process will be very quick.

Infrequent updates can also lead to an update process involving hundreds of packages.

4.3- Installing programs

After entering the new sources of packages, in the “System Administration” in the “Configure Your Desktop” we will be able to click on “Install and Remove Software” where you can find thousands of software categorized by type of application

To install them:
select
Turn on the connection to the internet (if necessary)
press install
when the operation is complete disconnect from the internet.
(actually just start the installation phase, you can actual could now close the connection to the internet)

From the terminal you can install the programs that you already know the name simply with the command urpmi name> preset> ,obviously you need to be super user and have the internet connection already active for then:

#urpmi <program name> <INVIO>

NOTE:
In the case in which the PC is plugged into a corporate network with proxy is added to the following command string

--proxy <IP del proxy>:<porta> --proxy-user <user name>:<password>

or if the proxy does not require password

--proxy <IP del proxy>:<porta>

"Install and Remove Software"

To search for a program that you know the name, for example KiCad, just type it into the field at the top and press enter.

In fact, it will find all the packages that contain the search string in the name.
PNG - 91.1 kb

Then press Apply and you agree to resolve any dependencies.

For some special programs, for example PYTHON research will bring out many files, we have to do in the absence of special needs (for example, use a specific version of python), you select only the main one, then just python.

NOTE 1:
Note the categories in order to specify what types of packages you want displayed.
The drop-down menu allows you to choose other options including “Packages with GUI” through which packets will be displayed with graphical interface omitting libraries and programs from the terminal, in short, to simplify the choice.
NOTE 2:
In the Options menu, select “use regular expressions to search”
in this way you refine your search.
Note 3:
In the VIEW menu and can choose from various types of grouping of packages.

4.3.1- Meta-packages

Also from the drop-down menu, which we just talked about, among other options there is the category Meta-packages.

These are empty packages that have been dragging behind as dependencies a particular set of packages.

Let’s take an example, selecting the “meta-packages” from the menu, and select the icon on the left bar “Graphical Desktop” and as “Xfce” you will find a little package appointed task-xfce (plus version) by selecting one, you can do it for only one test, you will see the list of dependencies associated with it, and you’ll understand the convenience of these meta packages.

Examples:
Task-games (install different games of various types of space occupying about 2.2 G)
edu-task (installs kde games, tuxpaint, stellarium etc for about 390M)

4.4- Updating a single program

If, for some reason, you do not want to upgrade the system, but you want to update only a single program, for example k3b just update the lists with the usual command:

#urpmi.update -a

after you install the update with

#urpmi --update k3b

4.5- Usefull programs and library!

There are a number of programs and libraries who could be useful to install and try immediately after adding the repository, and the first system update.
here’s the list:

Program Description
yakuake terminal (appears and disappears by pressing F12)
Konqueror We need this more than anything else to add convenient service menu to dolphin
kaffeine Great media player for digital TV
wine to install the programs win (install the 32bit version)
xsane for the scanner
xsane-gimp scanner using gimp
gimp Image manipulation program
Java (OpenJDK) Java (java-1.7.0-openjdk)
flash-player-plugin Flash Player plugin for browser
lame encoder MP3 (if you are on a 32bit system)
kipi-plugins Various plugins for photo correction
glabels to create labels
Tellico Cataloger collections, which I use as a small database
win32-codecs For media files that use typical windows formats (if you’re system is 32 bit)
libdvdcss2 Library for reading DVDs
libdvdnav4 Library for navigating DVDs
libfreetype6 Library for fonts

Note 1: Some are already installed, but it is still possible to checking.
Note 2: This will also install dependencies

A further step is to verify the install kernel source
[root@gold davide]#uname -r
3.13.10-nrjQL-desktop-1omv

indicates that both
the kernel version: 3.13.10
and also the type: desktop

I install the kernel-sources related to nrjQL-desktop

[root@gold davide]#urpmi kernel-nrjQL-desktop-devel
devel package may already be installed, if so you will be notified.

If you looking for the kernel, on the graphical installation program, it will be listed including various kernel will select the kernel devel relative to ours.

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Note: The kernel package devel serves, for example, when you need to install dkms driver. Even if you do not check this in advance, the installation will install anything that needs this package, as it will be installed as a dependency.

5- SYSTEM CONFIGURATION

The configuration programs that we will use to modify some aspects of the distribution are always the same:

Configure your Desktop (change user-level)
Configure your Computer (machine-level changes) (to run it from terminal use the command “mcc”)

Are easily found in Homerun or SimpleWelcome menus

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Or if you use kickoff as the start menu, then you will find below:

TOOLS | TOOLS SYSTEM

and have the following names:

Control Center == Configure Your Desktop
OpenMandriva Control Center == Configure Your Computer

5.1- OpenMandriva CONTROL CENTER

All the operations of system settings can be performed via a central graphical program.

The main control center is just in distribution OpenMandriva “OpenMandriva Control Center” via the following:

MENU | TOOLS | TOOLS SYSTEM

Identical to the famous “Mandriva Control Center”

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On the left are the various sections of which the most used is sure to be “Software Management”, from here you can access the system for managing the installation and removal of packages. RPMs contain the various programs.

Selecting the icon for the installation you get:

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If you already know the name of the package you want to install, for example if I want to install a program for electronic simulation, then try “oregano” and I select it, the system will select automatically all the other packages needed to install it (of course if there are any).

At this point, press APPLY.

Of course it is possible to select multiple items and install only at the end of the selection.

In the System section of the MCC can be configured:

  • Fonts (if you want to import on the partition windows or add more)
  • Active services (be careful)
  • The locale (language used by the old system and compatibility encoding not UTF-8, reachable by option ADVANCED)
  • Provide for and set up periodic backups.
  • Add additional users
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“Set the date and time” is useful if you want to activate the option for setting the time on the network. All you need is an internet connection active when you configure it.

NOTE: Please note that from OpenMandriva Lx 2014 and onwards, this distribution will be using FirewallID, and a relative applet to manage iptable rules, so would be better to use the new set of configuration programs.
Please see FirewallID and firewall-applet paragraph.
5.1.1- Configure authentication for instruments OpenMandriva

Through this menu you can select the necessary permits for the various configuration programs. Let’s take a practical example if we wanted to change the user password requirement for system upgrades, making it necessary for the user’s password administrator (root), simply find the row relating to “Mandriva Updates” and select from its drop-down menu “Password root”

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Complete by pressing the OK button

5.1.2- Adding components in MCC

After adding the repository internet you can install packages that will add other configuration wizard OpenMandriva Control Center.

There are several, among which I quote:

Drakfax : Allows you to configure a fax server, which uses Hylafax attention, and in fact will ask you to immediately install the HylaFAX server. You will see a new icon in the Hardware section in MCC | Configure printers and scanners.

Drakwizard : set of wizards for configuring the system (ftp, web, dhcp, dns, sshd, etc.)

Others will not appear in MCC but may be launched directly from the terminal.

Drakoo : Set the default save format for LibreOffice.

5.2- Control Center (KDE 4)

Through the control center accessible from KDE4
Menu | Computer | System Settings, you can configure all the options related to your desktop, then the appearance, user information, the presets, keyboard shortcuts with the relative configuration of the various function keys, and much more .

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The entries are the usual ones already present in the control center KDE, and functions remain the same.
They are grouped into sections whose title already spells out the functions that we are going to check.

If you have installed the nvidia drivers, remember to run the “Desktop Effects”
go to the tab “Advanced” and

Set OpenGL as the type of composition, so you can then enable other 3D effects like the cube just to make an example.

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selecting
“Application Appearance” questtta window will open with an icon menu on the left and on the presentation of the options you can change.

Selecting STYLE we can select using the appropriate drop-down menu styles already available in the system.
COLORS: Change the color set used (menu bars, etc.)
Here we can select the icon theme, or adds new sets of downloading them directly from kde-look, to do this just press the
[Get New Themes ...]
To install them just choose the one you want, select it and press on install

the list can be presented in orders of your choosing, such as best rating or most downloaded.

NOTE:
The [Get new ....]
we find in the other sections and we will always allow access to the extensive library of kde-look.|

We flow all the present options inside the Center of control KDE to verify all the possible configurations

Of particular interest may be:

Association of the file that allows you to select the program to use to open a particular file type. Just search for the file extension in a timely manner and to organize the list of programs associated with it, keeping in mind that the first program in the list will be the one normally used to open files of that type.

Auto Start from where you can enter both programs scripts, to be launched automatically to our desktop. See an example of a script to launch a VNC server, in paragraph (10.28), for example, I always add the “yakuake.”

Session Management useful to set the default exit action and remove or add the request of shutdown options.

5.2.1- Mouse

If you prefer to set single click instead of double for opening files

Control Center
Hardware section
Input Devices
mouse

Selecting the menu on the left mouse

I enable “single click to open files and folders”

I leave the rest as is.

Also in this window will be possible to calibrate the joystick
and modify and add keyboard shortcuts—simply click their icons.

5.3- Configuring Sensors Fans / temperature

lm_sensors and ’one of those packages that will be installed automatically during installation of the OS To verify the presence go to a terminal and type:

$sensors
the command should return something like:

acpitz-virtual-0
Adapter: Virtual device
temp1: +55.0°C (crit = +105.0°C)
temp2: +51.0°C (crit = +105.0°C)
temp3: +36.6°C (crit = +105.0°C)
temp4: +60.0°C (crit = +110.0°C)
temp5: +60.0°C (crit = +256.0°C)
temp6: +56.0°C (crit = +105.0°C)

oppure

k10temp-pci-00c3
Adapter: PCI adapter
temp1: +29.1°C (high = +70.0°C)
(crit = +90.0°C, hyst = +85.0°C)

and then everything is already installed. If this does not return anything or not this command, simply install the lm_sensors package.

however, launch the command as an administrator:
# sensors-detect

and follow the suggestions for each question (the options are written in upper case), just press Enter.

Will be detected and configured so other devices, relaunch the command “sensors” and get more information:

it8721-isa-0290
Adapter: ISA adapter
in0: +2.82 V (min = +1.36 V, max = +0.68 V) ALARM
in1: +2.82 V (min = +2.33 V, max = +1.60 V) ALARM
in2: +1.21 V (min = +2.94 V, max = +0.28 V) ALARM
+3.3V: +3.34 V (min = +5.35 V, max = +2.38 V) ALARM
in4: +2.99 V (min = +2.08 V, max = +0.95 V) ALARM
in5: +2.53 V (min = +1.12 V, max = +0.83 V) ALARM
in6: +1.64 V (min = +2.66 V, max = +0.32 V) ALARM
3VSB: +6.07 V (min = +1.80 V, max = +3.77 V) ALARM
Vbat: +3.36 V
fan1: 2586 RPM (min = 21 RPM)
fan2: 0 RPM (min = 12 RPM) ALARM
fan3: 0 RPM (min = 11 RPM) ALARM
temp1: +38.0°C (low = +1.0°C, high = -57.0°C) ALARM sensor = thermistor
temp2: +34.0°C (low = -5.0°C, high = -5.0°C) ALARM sensor = thermistor
temp3: -128.0°C (low = +87.0°C, high = +59.0°C) sensor = disabled
intrusion0: OK

Using KDE4, it is certainly simple to use plasmoids available to monitor temperatures.

5.4- Video Codec Installation

Libreria / codec
32bit64 bitDescription
libdvdcss2 lib64dvdcss2 DVD access by deCSS
libdvdread4 lib64dvdread4 Library for Reading DVD Video Images
libdvdnav4 lib64dvdnav4 DVD Navigation library
libdv4 lib64dv4 Codecs for Quasar DV Video
liba52dec0 lib64a52dec0 Library for decoding ATSC A/52 streams
libdvbpsi lib64dvbpsi7 Decoding MPEG2 and DVB PSI sections
libebml3 lib64ebml3 Extensible Binary Meta Language
libmatroska5 lib64matroska5 Library for Matroska (HD)
win32-codecs Set of codecs
x264 x264 H264/AVC encoder
real-codecs real-codecs Codecs real player
faac faac Free Advanced Audio Encoder (AAC encoder)
faad2 faad2 Free Advanced Audio Decoder (Mpeg2 e 4 decoder)

If you install you will see all your DVDs and read most of the audio / video formats

IF YOU ARE ON THE REPOSITORY all
you can simply use the INSTALL SOFTWARE MCC search. select and install the various packages.

Mandatory Note: Some of these packages are run formats covered by Rights (DRM or other), the use of which may be illegal in your country, which is why they are released in the Restricted repository.

NOTE: If you have installed the 64bit version, look for the above mentioned libraries in 64bit version and basically just change the name from libdvdcss2 8 lib64dvdcss2, just to give an example.It´ ll better look for them with the graphic program for installing packages, so as to simplify the search and version control (64bit/32bit), which are both present.

5.5- Readers Memory Cards, MP3 devices, digital cameras

As mentioned above, the detection and installation of USB devices is very efficient, so in principle everything that connects to the PC is automatically detected and mounted by presenting a widget into ICON

[Device newest].
In addition, by selecting the device from that window, a window appears with several options to choose from, for example, open a window or do nothing, formats, and more.

In the case of inserting a camera that does not show up, you can use the program Digikam, and just connect the camera and from the “camera” and press on “add camera”.
The communication will be through the ptp mode.

Digikam is useful as a cataloguer / viewer for both correct and retouch our photos; the program is complex and feature-rich, and therefore requires a reasonable time of learning of functions, although many of the possible operations to be performed on the photos are automated by various plugins present in Digikam and kipi by excellent plugins that extend the functionality of the program yet.
I will add some links:

http://www.digikam.org/
http://www.digikam.org/node/323
http://extragear.kde.org/apps/digik...
http://extragear.kde.org/apps/kipi/

5.6- OCR Software

As often happens in Linux, we also have for OCR programs from the command line and the front-end for ease of use,
We therefore available

Gocr (0:49 version)
Ocrad (0:21 version)
Tesseract (version 3:02:02)

5.7- NVIDIA DRIVER INSTALLATION

More and more hardware manufacturers release proprietary drivers for Linux. One of them is NVIDIA graphics chip maker (GeForce2, 4, GEFORCE FX, GeForce 6000/7000/8000 series, etc.) and NFORCE chipset motherboard (Nforce 2 Ultra Nforce2 400, nForce3 Nforce4 etc.)

NOTE: In my opinion it is absolutely preferable to install using DKMS packages, which have many advantages including the list:

1. Ease of installation
2. Automatic update drivers during system upgrades.
3. Automated rebuilding of the driver in case of updating the kernel and related packages devel.

use the other method only in the case of impossibility of access to the network.

5.7.1- NVIDIA Video Card Driver

The open source drivers used in the distribution are the nouveau driver, but often, for various needs that are recreational or professional, you need to install the excellent nvidia proprietary driver, they have much better performance.

To properly install the nvidia proprietary driver, you need the kernel and the kernel devel used aligned, otherwise the driver installation will not be completed. This is done automatically during the configuration of X11 by MCC.

5.7.1.1- Installing NVIDIA official drivers
If you do not have special needs drivers to use DKMS, see next paragraph.

From the Nvidia website in the download section you can download the latest drivers for your card, just select the series and it will be sent to the appropriate download page

This was downloaded and ’a run file.

NVIDIA-Linux-x86_64-331.20.run
(The number varies when a new version)

NOTE: This procedure requires that the modules are not loaded nouveau, because it totally incompatible with the nvidia proprietary driver.

So now that the open drivers are nouveau instead of nv classics, to install the driver we cannot simply leave the ServerX, but we will have to boot directly into init3

the ServerX will not work being loaded with the nouveau driver, and we’ll end up in front of a pure console.

At this point you go to the directory where we saved our file. Run it and we will make it executable with the command:

#chmod +x NVIDIA-Linux-x86_64-331.20.run
and then we will launch
#sh NVIDIA-Linux-x86_64-331.20.run

Start an application that will install the new driver in the system, but to do so will have to compile one.
The only attention and answer NO to the connection request to the mirror Nvidia to search for a driver already compiled (you can also groped if you have Internet access already active and if you have never updated the kernel).

After the procedure you have to tell the system to use the Nvidia drivers; you can do so by editing the file:

/etc/X11/xorg.conf
then:

[root@GOLD davide]#vi /etc/X11/xorg.conf

In the DEVICE to change the setting Driver “nv” to “nvidia”

Section “Device”
Identifier “device1”
VendorName “nVidia”
BoardName “NVIDIA GeForce (generic)”
Driver “nvidia”
Option “DPMS”
EndSection

save the file

ESC
:wq

Also check the presence of “nvidia”
in /etc/modprobe.preload

and reboot the system with the command
#shutdown -r now

5.7.1.2- Installing the NVIDIA driver using DKMS packages

If you have already configured the repository internet

E ’enough to go to Configure Your Computer
Hardware section
and press the Configure Graphic system

This will open a window through which we are going to reselect our video card, under the Vendor and nVidia, are listed in groups for practically as:

“Geforce 2 MX to Geforce 4”
“Geforce 400 series and later” (install nvidia-current)
“Geforce 6100 to Geforce 7950” (install nvidia-304)
“Geforce 8100 to Geforce 360” (install nvidia-current)
“Geforce FX – series” (install nvidia-173)

confirm your choice !

We’ll be warned of the presence of a driver and owner ; we are asked if we want to use it .... Click on “YES”

Be so installed all the necessary packages including the DKMS and the appropriate kernel-devel .

Complete the installation and compilation of us dkms driver will be asked to select
monitor - select Plug & Play
resolution - please leave what you find

in the end a window with a few options to enable or disable
and ’ absolutely necessary to enable the last option at the bottom otherwise just restart the X server will not start¨ will appear.

In the case of dual monitor , remember to enable the output with the appropriate option .

Completion these tasks will exit the configuration program , and you will have to restart your PC.

Note:
The advantage of using these packages , in addition to not having to exit X and move on a terminal , is to be automatically recompiled for every kernel upgrade, and to be updated during the usual system upgrades.

The disadvantage is that upgrades automatically during system updates ; you run a very low risk they are extensively tested before , to install a version with bugs too blockers, due to the packaging or by the driver. To overcome this problem , just enter these drivers between the packages to not update .

I installed drivers provide extra programs such as nvidia-settings with which you can obtain a lot of information on the video card hardware .

JPEG - 63.5 kb

Its even possible to configure a second monitor.

In case you want to use this application to configure the video card remember to run it as an administrator, the command to use is:

#nvidia-settings

Running it as an administrator we can save changes to the file usually

/etc/X11/xorg.conf

5.8- installing the ATI DRIVER

Install the kernel sources and follow the same instructions in the section

“Installazione driver NVIDIA tramite pacchetti DKMS”

The procedure is almost identical.

I can not be more detailed as I never got to try the ATI cards, , in fact, always depending on the hardware Linux does not even take into account the different cards from Nvidia or intel ..... at least for now. But this is only my personal opinion.

More information can be found, however, via a dedicated network.

5.9- Installing the INTEL DRIVER

Intel releases the driver directly to the open source community so there are no proprietary drivers to update. Having a laptop with Intel video card I could see that drivers released are good enough, and can be activated even 3D.
The performances are not comparable to Nvidia cards, but definitely good.

Note: Sometimes the video playback with this type of video cards has an abnormal overlap of dots blacks on the images. To solve this problem, simply select in the settings of the player in the category Video Video a suitable driver, such as X11Shm.

This is on almost every player mplayer, xine and the programs that they rely such as kmplayer, kaffeine, and etc.

5.10- In the event of problems with the proprietary drivers (ATI / Nvidia)

If the verification of the operation of the proprietary driver does not have a positive outcome, simply rerun the selection process of the card and the question
"There is a proprietary driver ..... I want to use "answer NO!
Complete and try again with the TEST button, the proper functioning of the open drivers.

At this point if we do not see a GUI, we will dedicate ourselves to understanding the origin of the problem with the drivers´ owners.

5.11- Boot Loader Configuration

The default boot loader in OpenMandriva Lx 2014 GRUB2

To configure it using the configuration program in the control center KDE, in the section
System Administration
selecting “Startup and Shutdown” and finally moving on
"GRUB2 bootloader"

5.12- Installing and Configuring Devices

In these paragraphs there will be given instructions on how to install the most common devices on OpenMandriva. Often you will not need to do anything other times we will have to perform the steps, in principle simple.

5.12.1- Printers

From the “Configure Your Computer
Hardware section
Press the button: Configure printer (s) , print queues , ....
We will meet in front of a window where we’re going to add the printer already connected via the ADD button .

Later you may need to install some packages, so make sure you have already configured the repository and to have access to the Internet is active. If prompted to accept the installation of required packages .

If the printer is connected via USB will find it already in the list, if it is a network printer we have to choose :
“Find network printer” is added in the space HOST IP address of the printer and trace it using the button FIND
After a few moments of research a wshould be founded and added to the list as a network printer.

Press the NEXT button to complete the configuration,; you will need to be installed if other packages.

Now we will choose the driver to use ; try our printer brand and model from the list. In the right window there will be several drivers to choose from. All going well , you probably need to select the recommended and press NEXT

Set the name and description of the printer and press APPLY

In the printer’s Properties window you can still change the options, for example, the print quality to be used as the default rather than the two-sided printing if available (usually in the office printers or multi-function )

NOTE:
The steps and options depend on the type of printer , make, model , type of connection and available options , then what will be required may vary slightly from the description just made .

If your printer is an HP , you can use the program “HP Device Manager” to configure and manage the printer , if you have an HP multifunction use this program to configure the printer and fax in a single shot.

5.12.2- Scanner

From the Configure Your Desktop
Hardware section
Press : Configure a scanner

Some packages will be installed if necessary including of course the back end sound, after which it will be detected the scanner connected to the PC.

NOTE: If you own an HP MFP that does not use the system to configure the integrated scanner, the HP driver for the printer already provides everything you need to use the scanner.

6- Finishing touches to the system

There are some tweaks that can be used to make our system more usable.

6.1- Konsole

“Yakuake,” for example, is a wonderful program that allows you to make ready a terminal by a simple press of F12.

6.2- SYSTEM MENU Default (Homerun)

The default menu of OpenMandriva 2014 Lx becomes Homerun in full-screen version, much like Simplewelcome of RosaLab, but with usability, in my opinion, it is better and more similar to a standard menu.

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The menu, in the default configuration, has four tabs.
On the first tab, there are the most widely used programs, and the recently opened files.
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Please note that the “Favorite Places”, which you can use as a normal file manager
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The second tab provides the actual menu of applications, from which we can access all the programs installed.
Compared to Simple welcome on the left we have a convenient division of the programs for their functionality, which will make the menu more usable.

Whichever card you are, you can avail, of course, start writing the name of the program and it will appear.
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The third tab is actually a file manager that will allow us to navigate in our home
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Finally, the last card provides all closing commands normally available.
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Notice the icon in the upper right corner, through which we can access the configuration menu of Homerun.

In particular, see the “Configure Tabs”
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By selecting “Configure Tabs” we are going to change the various sections in the existing tabs, some are actually a bit empty.
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You can also create with other key
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On the left you will see all kinds of “Runner” available, just pick the ones we want and press on the add button to select them.
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The final positioning can be adjusted using the arrows

After fininishing making changes,
you will need to fix them by pressing DONE

6.3- Simple Wellcome

If you prefer , you can continue to use Simple wellcome.
Simple wellcome menu is a little detail that occupies almost the entire screen and follows the menus of mobile devices such as tablets and smart-phones by presenting all the icons of installed applications, with the possibility of horizontal scrolling and dragging a possibility to group icon on the other, to obtain the groups.

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It is divided into three sections:
The first is a summary, with the latest applications and perform disk access and root directories

Note the possibility of Fixa program into Recent applications, in such a way as not to make them disappear.
To do that just click with the right mouse button which will bring up a yellow star, on which we
then we’re going to click with the left mouse button to fix it.
PNG - 423 kb
The middle one shows all the icons of the programs installed on the system

These icons can be moved just hold down the left button of the mouse for a while on one of them.

In addition to moveing, you can also just move on to other group to automatically create a group.

The group can be renamed.
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The third named TimeFrame has two different sections of the first “My Local Documents”
Shows in chronological order all the documents (including photos and videos), but to work requires the enabling of Nepomuk from KDE control center.

The second “Social Networking Site” to access facebook & other online services

To add and change to other menus, particpular themore conventional, there must be added the object “Starter Application” to the panel, which will add the Kickoff menu. You can download new items for PLASMA, such as BigLancelot, appmenuQML and others.

6.4- New Characters (Fonts)

After installation we have available for each program different sets of characters in the repositories internet; there are several others.

A complete list can be found on the “Install Software” —> “font”

6.5- Add, Remove or change Panels

You are able to change the panel type or add a new empty panel using the tool box in the right corner and select the item you want.
For example:

ADD PANEL and from the menu select the type of panel.

You have three options :

  1. Default Panel
  2. Empty panel
  3. OpenMandriva Panel

The first and the third entry can be recreated as full panel in the classic version of KDE4 and OpenMandriva.

So just completely remove the panel you want to replace and add your panel.
To remove a panel, use the context menu that appears by pressing the right mouse button on the panel to remove and selecting : Remove Panel

Note: In case you didn’t remove the panel already, the present new panel will cover the previous without replacing it .

So just move one on another side of the screen to have them both visible .

7- Miscellaneous info

7.1- INITIAL NOTES

In this chapter we list some notions that often comes in handy to know, even if they are not absolutely necessary for everyday use functional system, they can make life easier in case of problems.

In the manual, I often refer to commands executed on end, sometimes this can be hard especially in the beginning, but it is good to specify that all operations configuration, installation, etc. can also be made through the various graphics applications provided by OpenMandriva, as with any other Linux distribution.

Having said that, with the passage of time, some operations you will want to run via the command line, precisely because of its convenience and speed.

7.2- Commands main shell

To use the shell commands it is necessary to know at least the main evidential list in bold.

The shell can be called many things you know that when it comes to the terminal prompt, or command line always refers to the same thing.

There are a huge amount of commands, below is a short list of the most significant and used, and some are even listed the main options.

man : formats and displays the online help pages .
cd : changes the current directory .
ls : display the contents of a directory.
cp : copy files and directories.
mv : move or rename a file or directory.
rm : delete files and directories.
mkdir : Creates a directory.
ln : create links to files and directories.
pwd : shows the current directory.
chmod : change the access permissions of a file.
chown : change owner of a file.
cat : display the contents of a file.
find : Find a file between directories .
vi : the text editor . the one and only .
df : shows the free space on the hard disk .
free : Shows the status of the memory.
mount : mounting a filesystem.
umount : disable a file system.
ps : displays a list of running processes .
kill : send a message (TERM by default) to a process .
hostname : display and change the host name.
gzip : compresses and decompresses files . gz .
tar : create backup files (. tar).
more : separates the output into more ’ pages ( even less) .
less : separates the output into more ’ pages
reset : reset the terminal to its initial settings .
zip and unzip : compresses and decompresses files . zipper.
top : shows processes that use more ’ CPU time or memory.
uncompress : uncompress files compressed file (. Z )
dmesg : print event logs on the system, if you insert a USB storage device or another device to see what is associated with :

Some clarifications on the various options of the following commands :

cp : Copy file and directory.
-r ricorsively. (If you are coping a directory)
-a maintains the attributes.
-f Force.

rm : delete files and directories (note: NOT undelete exists!).
-d remove also the directory.
-i asks for confirmation.
-f force.
-r recursively. (if you delete a directory)

tar : creates or draws up files .
x extracts.
c stores.
v verbose.
f file name (to store or extract).
z processes before gzip (for. tar.gz or. tgz).

In general, to store:
tar -cvf <archive>

and to extract

tar -xvf <archive>
or
tar -zxvf <archive>
or
tar -zxvf <archive>

gzip : compresses and decompresses files (estensione .gz).
-d Uncompress.
-f Force.
-r ricorsive.
-1 fast .
-9 better compresion.

ps : show a list of the current process.
l extended format
u user name and start time.
m memory usage information.
a show the processes of other users.
r shows only active processes.
x also shows the processes that do not control a terminal.

tail : Shows the end of a file .
-s only the last s rows.
-c x last x bytes.
-f read a file , which is useful if it is modified .

chgrp : change the group ownership of a file.
chmod : change the access permissions of a file.
numerical method :
first number ( optional):
4: set user ID
2: set group ID
1: swappa the text image
second number ; permission of the owner :
4: Reading
2: Writing
1: Run
third number ; group permissions , the same values.
fourth number ; permission of others, the same values.
-R recursively.

chown : change owner of a file or directory.
user.group sets the owner to user.group
- R recursively.

rpm : manage packages . rpm
-i install a package.
-e removes a package.
-qi [- qip ] shows information about a package [ not ] installed.
-ql [- qlp ] shows the files contained in a package [ not ] installed.
-qa shows the list of installed packages.

OpenMandriva provides the command “urpmi” very comfortable and functional.

# urpmi .rpm

7.3- VI an editor quickly and effectively

Although all changes to various configuration files you can run through the usual graphics editors like kwrite, throwing in administrator mode.
With KDE4 you need to open a terminal and switch to administrator and then launch the program.

[davide@GOLD ]$su - (NOTE hyphen after the command is absolutely necessary)
password:
[davide@GOLD ]# kwrite

a great editor from the terminal is the famous “VI”.

Unfortunately, its use is not the most simple, yet remembering only a few commands you can in a few with a few moments bare minimum required to execute those changes in the various configuration files.

([davide@GOLD ]#vi

here is some useful commands to know.
CommandEffect
Vi opening files
Esc Switch to write mode to display
i Enable writing to the position of the cursor (insert)
a Enable writing to the next position (append)
x In viewing mode deletes the character under the cursor
dd Delete the line under the cursor
Esc : Enable the save commands output
Esc : r Inserts the contents of the file read (r /etc/fstab inserts the contents of fstab file and the point on which we are running the command)
Esc : wq Save and exit (write quit)
Esc : q! Exits without saving

7.4- Super User (root)

When you open a terminal you get what is called the prompt:

example [davide@GOLD ]$
or [root@GOLD davide]#

these strings on each new line give us some information
type:

The user (davide, root)
The name of the system (GOLD)
and especially the PATH ( davide)

by david if I move in the Music directory with the command

[davide@GOLD ]$ cd Musica

the promt will become like this:
[davide@GOLD Musica]$

Finally the most important information tells us if we are a user ($) or administrator (#)

# indicates that you are super user (administrator or root) to become type:

[davide@GOLD ]$ su
[davide@GOLD ]$ password *******
[root@GOLD davide]#

Note:
If you want to edit files as root from GUI but just
open the terminal and switch to administrator and then launch the desired program.

[davide@GOLD ]$su - (NOTE hyphen after the command is absolutely necessary)
password:
[davide@GOLD ]# kwrite

Any program can be run with root privileges in the same manner. CAUTION because the use of the user root has serious implications for safety. see #2.5

7.5- Security

SYSTEM
THE ROOT PASSWORD SHOULD NEVER BE USED AS IF IT WERE A USER NORMAL USE THE ROOT USER, AS YOUR HOME impairs SECURITY SYSTEM.

THEN USE YOUR USER!

DATA
MAKE PERIODIC BACKUP OF DATA TO ANOTHER PARTITION OR BETTER OR a DISC, it is a good idea to avoid total loss of data, both for involuntary cancellation or due to breakage of the storage medium.

7.6- Change Password

There are various ways to change their password but the easiest and fastest
is to open a terminal and type the command “passwd”.

$ passwd
You will be prompted to enter in sequence
the old password
The new password
the new password again

Done ....

To do this with graphics Applications must invoke the setup program Configure Your Desktop

Navigate to the SYSTEM tab and click on the item

“Managing system users”
Select the user and click Edit button.
In the form that appears type in the new password in the fields
Password and Confirm Password.
Click OK and exit the program.

NOTE: As you can already see from this example, some operations are much faster when performed by terminal.

7.7- Applications of remote servers

You may happen to need to use applications that reside on other servers (Linux, HP, SUN), in these cases it is necessary to remember two important things:

a ) Export your DISPLAY:
then after you login to your server we give the following command

setenv DISPLAY: 0.0

b ) Allow you to access your X server to the machine that hosts the program.

From terminal on our machine $ xhost
or $ xhost + (allows access to all)

These commands can be automated to log in many ways the easiest and enter the xhost command line in the file. bash_profile
which is located on our home

this is the place to put any scripts / programs you want to start automatically.

In the case of access via SSH (if the server supports it) there will be no need for another command in addition to the following:

ssh-X-l

7.8- Connecting to the remote machine (XDMCP)

If we have two or more PCs on the network can use XDMCP to connect to multiple PCs remotely by opening a real remote session with their user . In fact the same computer, and the applications contained therein may be used by multiple users simultaneously.

Editing the configuration file / etc/alternatives/kdm4-config changing the field “Enable” Make your PC reachable .

Obviously, as an administrator, right to pass the file to the section and put Xdmcp Enable = true

[ Xdmcp ]
Enable = true
Willing = / usr/share/X11/xdm/Xwilling
Xaccess = / etc/X11/xdm/Xaccess

On the client side we have two possibilities
1 ) From the login screen to choose between the options Remote login , select the machine to reach and cater to login
2) From your desktop , open a terminal and give the command X: 1 -query PC -to-reach or address ADDRESS>

in both cases you’ll end up with the usual login screen .

Note 1: In the second example, we will have our desktop (local) accessible via CTRL + ALT + F8 while remotely via CTRL + ALT + F9

Note 2: Better not use the 3D desktop for this type of application .

Note 3: If we log off we get is the closure of the session, and processes / programs are enabled. This is not to be used as a remote control session. If this is what you want you’ll have to use something like TightVNC or TigerVNC , (see appropriate section) .

7.9- Configuring authentication for instruments OpenMandriva

From the Configure Your Computer
Hardware section
Press the button:
“Configuring authentication for instruments OpenMandriva”
A window will open with a list of the transactions will be able to choose the type of authentication required, between the following options:

Root Password
user password
No password

For example the default configuration provides the ability to perform updates to the system by entering the user’s password, if you have children it would be better to change this option to “Root password” from this screen you can do it easily by changing the second item.

7.10- Kernel Options

In some (rare) cases the installation of Operating System can not be completed or started, it is often just a process of adding to the kernel options to enable / disable / force “something.” This section lists some options to add to the kernel, to solve this kind of problems.

Let’s start by clarifying how and where you put these options in STEP INSTALLATION.

At the Boot from DVD when screen comes with various options

OpenMandriva you select Install and press the TAB key
appears in a command line (Boot options) in the bottom of which we are going to add the option previously selected on the basis of the problem, for example noapic and nolapic and others.
You only need to add the options you want in the bottom of the line “boot option”

let’s see what they should do these options.
OptionOption Info
NOAPIC Disable APIC (Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controllers) System used to set the interrupts of the various devices (*)
NOLAPIC Disable APIC (Local Advanced Programmable Interrupt Controllers) System used to set the interrupts of the various devices
ACPI=OFF Disable ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) A system for controlling speed of the fans and the various kinds of PC shutdown (*)
NOAPM is the other power management in use.
mem=xxxM Overwrites the memory detected by the system useful for older PCs but also for laptop video card that shares memory Overwrites the memory detected by the system to be used in case of discrepancy between the measured and the memory actually present. (**)
nopcmcia Turn off PCMCIA devices present in the system
nosmp Force boot in single processor mode
speedboot Option that enables the quick start of the system OpenMandriva speedboot used to speed up boot before loading the services necessary to start the graphical interface
edd=off
mce=off
nomce
Exception control system Disable this control
nomodeset Prevents the kernel to determine the screen resolution Applicable in the event starting and stalling on a black screen.
nokmsboot Disable the boot on multi-core Use only one core of the uP to boot

(*) Try it if you can not boot the OS installation
(**) Replace xxx with the value of memory in Megabytes.

To have more information about the kernel flavours available on OpenMandriva you can see the following wiki page

https://wiki.openmandriva.org/en/Kernel

7.11- SpeedBoot

Even OpenMandriva Lx 2014 continues to have the ability to set speedboot.
Speedboot is a option to speed up boot time by, in loading the system before all the services necessary are finished processing. This may lead to some initial speed and stability issues upon startup.

The initial configuration that provides the option is set to NO. To run the probe and see if you can actually enable it, add the boot option speedboot = probe.

When you first start, try to check the compatibility of the system with speed-boot.

Just edit the file as administrator
/etc/sysconfig/speedboot
changing
SPEEDBOOT = yes
rather
SPEEDBOOT = no

in this way you will not need to add or remove any kernel option.
If you want to force active, assigned to Speedboot = yes

7.12- Info Start-up

During the startup of the system we are “entertained by a beautiful screen and a progress bar indicates the progress of Boot the system, this is just a cover of the classic startup checklist of Linux systems , which could scare off new users and that in any case it was” bad " to behold.

To revert to the classic startup checklist, simply press the ESC key during startup.
The sequence of “OK” or “Failed” dedicated to the start of each service , you may want to verify the presence or absence of problems, but very often turns out to be too fast for the proper understanding of what happened, and then to re-read it with calm that has happened in the last start , just go to see the “system log” / var / log / boot.log it can be read from the terminal via the usual commands
#cat /var/log/boot.log
or with
# less /var/log/boot.log
or still open on kwrite in this case with
# kwrite /var/log/boot.log (you must be Administrator - command “su -”

Notes:
Better to use the first command for a clearer understanding .
Note the need to open them as administrator (SU)

What we’ll see will be a list like this:

Starting SMB services : [OK]
Starting NMB services : [OK]
Starting wine : [OK]

Where we’re going to try not OK but rather any [ FAILED ] .

NOTE: Please see also the paragraphe 9.29.4.Journalctl : New Logs system

7.13- LOG System

As we saw in the previous section. Log file system are placed in the / var / log / here we can read other logs with some useful information.
Some files are listed very long reporting and store information for each day, in order to restrict the viewing of the latest lines stored using the command “tail” with the option - for example:
# tail -20 /var/log/dmesg

Note: OpenMandriva use, journalctl for log system, you can read about it on the relevant paragraph

7.14- Close a blocked program

It does not happen often but if we happen to encourter a locked program, we can use three different methods to “kill the process”

1) Use the top command on a terminal which will be present after a certain rows of information is a list of active processes: where we’ll have to find one with a higher CPU utilization, or the name of the program locked in the corresponding row we find the information PID that we need to kill the program

PID USER PR NIVIRT RES SHR S %CPU %MEM TIME+ COMMAND
3581 root 15 0 286m 52m 4660 R 5 10.6 3:07.52 X
4294 davide 15 0 31856 14m 11m S 3 2.9 0:18.51 yakuake
3831 root 15 0 7168 1168 884 S 0 0.2 0:03.36 nmbd

So just take the key k (kill) and enter the name of the process to kill and then press 9.

to exit from top command to use “q”

2) press the keyboard shortcut CTRL + Esc will open a window with the list of processes, just like in the top, but less “impressive”, where we will look for the same information as before, but in this case it is sufficient to select the line and press the “KILL”. Note that you can sort the information by pressing on the column headers.

3) Install xkill (# urpmi xkill) launch it from the menu | Run command, you will see a skull instead of the mouse cursor and we will just go and click on the window to kill.

Choose the method you prefer, but remember that there are various ways to do this.

7.15- Permissions, Groups, devices

Often we run into two problems with the permissions setting on the devices, files, services, etc. Simply put, these vary depending on the level of security and their type, for example, sound, video, etc. . tty.

When we fail to do something as a non-adminstrator, we as for example, use a DVB card rather than a scanner or another, we could add to our “USER” our permissions. To do this we use MCC | SYSTEM | Add remove changes to accounts.

Select from the list of users in your name and double click on it. This will open a window in Which the last card GROUPS, we’re going to select the item That interests us.

Select only one related to your problem, do not select a carpet of everything that could or would not be useful.

7.16- Start, Stop, Restart Services

On some occasions it may be necessary or useful to restart a service .
Active services can be seen both by the usual MCC | System | enable disable some system services
In the window that shows the services there are two buttons to start and stop each service , as well as convenient key information if you have questions about the service (unfortunately only in English).
Also you can check / uncheck the boot to set which services you need at startup .

From the terminal and as an administrator is possible via the command
# chkconfig
see the services that should be activated for any specific run .

Some of these will not tell us anything , others will know them by name , and still others are very useful to know.
Just for example :
For wine wine
For the xfs font handling (no longer used)
cups for printer management
For network management network

To manage the start , stop or restart of the various services , which we remember the exact name , from the terminal using the command “service” as an administrator :

# service

where can take the following items

1. start
2. stop
3. restart

make an example of wanting to re-initialize the network will give the command:
# service network restart
obtaining:

Off the interface eth0 : [OK]
Off the interface eth1 : [OK]
Disabling loopback interface : [OK]
Enabling loopback interface : [OK]
Active interface eth0 : [OK]
Active interface eth1 : [OK]

7.17- Add fonts “special”

Aside from the normal installation of the various RPMs, requiring only the selection and installation to “install software” automatically solve everything, I stop adding special character set required for applications running, for example, on a SUN server / HP etc.

Suppose you want to add a folder containing fonts , will just copy it to /usr/share/fonts/
enter into the TEST directory and run the command
mkfontdir

In /usr/share/fonts/ you will also find directories related to fonts already installed, for example:
100dpi / 75dpi / chinese / cyrillic / default / drakfont / java / misc / msfonts / OTF / override / Speedo / TTF / TTF / Type1 /

Then we will go to the directory / etc/X11/fontpath.d /
and create a symbolic link to the folder with the command:
# ln-s .. /.. /.. /usr/share/ fonts/TEST TEST: pri = 50

Note:
YOU DO NOT NEED TO RESTART THE SERVICE, ALL FONTS ARE NOW AVAILABLE.

7.18- Avoid The update of some programs

The automatic update of packages, it is a very convenient feature that allows you to keep a system updated to solve bugs, various problems and applying security patches. However this may be risky on some packages “special” type kernel drivers (eg nvidia), in fact you could go from one driver to a fully functional again but with problems.

To avoid this risk we say “calculated” you can edit the file
/etc/urpmi/skip.list

going to add a line by line the names of the programs you do not want them to be updated.

Note:
let’s take a concrete example, we install the nvidia proprietary drivers (nvidia-current), and everything works fine, we do not believe that it is necessary to update them, if not voluntarily.

Then, edit the file /etc/urpmi/skip.list in the following way
# Here you can specify the packages that won’t be upgraded automatically
# for example, to exclude all apache packages :
# /^apache/
/^dkms-nvidia-current/
/^nvidia-current-doc-html/
/^x11-driver-video-nvidia-current-32bit/
/^x11-driver-video-nvidia-current/

7.19- /etc/fstab

Information
penMandriva uses the identifier UUIUD in fstab practice in the classical strings
/dev/hda7 / ext3 defaults 1 1
is replaced with the ID of the disk / partition (/ dev/sda1) with a UUID type
# Entry for /dev/sdb1 :
UUID=32cae650-def2-4a5e-9e17-6c35225ff611 / ext4 defaults 1 1

Does not change much. While it may seem less understandable it has a great advantage in the event of a change of partitions, if we were to delete or create multiple partitions those that remain continue to have the same UUID and fstab so the file would still be valid
Above each string there is a comment that specifies the disk equivalent with the usual syntax
/dev/hda1, /dev/sda5 or whatever.

To view UUID of a disk using the command (as administrator)
# vol_id -u /dev/hda7
NOTE: If, for any reason, you do not want to use this system, you can restore the “normal” syntax by adding parameters to the kernel configuration option
use_uuid = 0
Let us now recall the meaning of the various parts of the string

/dev/sdb1 / ext4 defaults 1 1

/dev/sdb1 (or new UUID) = device and partition to mount
/ Mount point (where we will find the contents of the disk / partition
ext4 File system type
defaults Set of options separated by commas (see table below)
1 (dump) specifies whether to dump to do the backup (obsolete)
1 (pass) Specifies whether or not the file system check at startup and with which priority
0 = No Control
1 = High priority (boot partition)
2 = Control with secondary priority

OptionDescriptionNote
default Set basic options:
rw, suid, dev, exec, auto, nouser, async.
(*)
user It also allows normal users to mount the filesystem
nouser It does not allow normal users to mount the filesystem
auto All filesystem with this option mentioned in fstab are mounted at boot (mount -a)
noauto The filesystem must be mounted explicitly
exec Allows execution of programs on the filesystem
noexec It does not allow programs to run on the filesystem
ro Mount the filesystem read-only
rw Mount the filesystem read / write
async all I / O to the file system should be asynchronous (**)
sync all I / O to the file system must be synchronous (**)
suidAllows the suid and sgid bits to take effect
nosuid It does not allow the use of device files on the filesystem
dev Allows the use of device files on the filesystem
nodev It does not allow the use of device files on the filesystem
noatime Do not update the access time for each access to the inode. It increases the speed of data access
gid=xxx Indicates the permissions of the user group with the logic of the command “chmod” (every x is from 0 to 7) (*)
uid=xxx # Uid = xxx - indicates the user’s permissions. (*)
umask=xxx Set the permissions of the filesystem TO REMOVE THOSE OF SYSTEM (with the logic chmod), umask = 777 even root can change permissions of any file (*)

* If after the default option, you insert another option, contrary to one of those present in the default, setting this option will overwrite the previous one.
So we can use the default option as a base and then change the options adding others.

**Be careful using these options.

7.20- Enable / disable CTRL + ALT + Backspace to restart X

You can enable or disable the key combination Ctrl + Alt + Backspace, directly from XFdrake, just select the appropriate item.

Open the Configure Your Desktop
Hardware section
you choose “Configure the graphics system”
On the form that opens, select the “Options” button
and uncheck the “Disable CTRL + ALT + Backspace”
Press OK
You will be prompted to save the changes, then press “Yes”

For earlier versions, continue to use the old method:
The key combination Ctrl + Alt + Backspace to restart the X server and disabled, to reactivate need to edit the file
/etc/X11/xorg.conf
adding in the ServerFlags section the following option:
Option “DontZap” "false"
______________________
Section “ServerFlags”
Option “Xinerama” "0"
Option “DontZap” "false"
EndSection
______________________

7.21- Change the java version in use

Often you need to use the applications that require a particular version of Java, in this case just install the correct version from the repository, without removing those already installed.

To check the version currently in use, you can use the command:
[Prompt ] $ java-version
which returns:

java version “1.7.0_45”
OpenJDK Runtime Environment (fedora-2.4.3.1-x86_64 u45-b15)
OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 24.45-b08, mixed mode)

via the alternative command (you must be an administrator) can check the available alternatives and switch to another version:

[Prompt ] # alternatives --config java
which returns:
There is only one alternative in link group java (providing /usr/bin/java): /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.7.0-openjdk-1.7.0.60-2.4.3.1.x86_64/jre/bin/java
Nothing to configure.

If I had installed other virtual machine would find a list from which I could select which one to use.

Note: there is no longer the option to install directly from the repository Java Oracle (ex SUN), also by downloading it directly from the rpm package, will not see him in the list of alternatives.
We shall therefore put it on the alternatives at hand:

Download and install from the rpm package that you want (JDK, JRE 32bit or 64bit)

give the following commands (if you install the jre you have to change the strings accordingly)

update-alternatives --install "/usr/bin/java" "java" "/usr/java/latest/bin/java" 1
update-alternatives --install "/usr/bin/javac" "javac" "/usr/java/latest/bin/javac" 1
update-alternatives --install "/usr/bin/javaws" "javaws" "/usr/java/latest/bin/javaws" 1

And if you wanto to manage in this way also the browser plugin then
update-alternatives --install "/usr/java/latest/libjavaplugin.so" "mozilla-javaplugin.so" "/usr/java/latest/jre/lib/amd64/libnpjp2.so" 1

Now there are two alternatives:

[root@Gold2 ]# alternatives --config java
There are 2 choices for the alternative java (providing /usr/bin/java).

Selection Path Priority Status


* 0 /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.7.0-openjdk-1.7.0.60-2.4.3.1.x86_64/jre/bin/java 170045 auto mode
1 /usr/java/latest/bin/java 1 manual mode
2 /usr/lib/jvm/java-1.7.0-openjdk-1.7.0.60-2.4.3.1.x86_64/jre/bin/java 170045 manual mode

Select option 1 and we can try again the commad java -version

java version “1.7.0_51”
Java(TM) SE Runtime Environment (build 1.7.0_51-b13)
Java HotSpot(TM) 64-Bit Server VM (build 24.51-b03, mixed mode)

7.21.1- Install Oracle Java

If you prefer, or do you absolutely need to install the java provided by Oracle, go directly to the website
http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/j...

Press the button “Download free java”, and in the list select the appropriate items rpm, depending on your system, so 32bit or 64bit
Download it!

  • jre-7u51-linux-x64.rpm
  • jdk-7u51-linux-x64.rpm
  • or for 32bit system
  • jre-7u51-linux-i586.rpm
  • jdk-7u51-linux-i586 .rpm

and install it (just double-click and enter the administrator password)
These rpm install java in /usr/java then in addition to not fall in the lists of the alternatives we have to perform a few simple steps to use it in your internet browser.

1) go to /usr/lib64/mozilla/plugins/ or /usr/lib/mozilla/plugins/ for 32bit and delete symbolic links to the library libjavaplugins
2) create a symbolic link usr/java/latest/jre/lib/amd64/libnpjp2.so
then:
cd / usr/lib64/mozilla/plugins /
and
ln -s /usr/java/latest/jre/lib/amd64/libnpjp2.so

restarting firefox plugins you will find in the Java Oracle/Sun

Please pay attention that with these procedures you have installed ob

7.22- Mounting NFS file system automatically (autofs)

Install the package autofs
As an administrator, edit the file /etc/autofs/auto.master
[Prompt]# vi /etc/autofs/auto.master
and decomentare the following line
/net -hosts
save the file and restart the service
[Prompt]# service autofs restart
At this point we will be able to automatically mount the NFS shared directory.
By simply putting / net / machine name to contact to have it automatically mounted under / net, we can do it directly from dolphin.

Great for also simplifying shared files and folders in the home environment using NFS.

7.23- Check Audio Speakers

Since the onboard sound in our PCs now offer at least 6 channels, you might wanna try one of those set of 5.1 speakers. Once you have placed and connected to the PC, we can use the speaker-test program to verify proper operation and correct position.

We can go on the small icon of kmix in the system tray, right-click open the menu and select “Audio Setup”

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Just click on the buttons corresponding to the case and hear a voice ( in English), we will specify the location of the chest under test.

You do not need to install any additional program.

The traditional method was to install the program “speaker-test”
The program must be installed, and if obviously already present in the repository, then install it as usual using MCC directly or from the terminal with

#urpmi speaker-test

First of all there is the capability of your sound card with aplay-L that returns all possible configurations.

[Prompt]$aplay -L
front:CARD=Intel,DEV=0
HDA Intel, AD198x Analog
Front speakers
surround40:CARD=Intel,DEV=0
HDA Intel, AD198x Analog
4.0 Surround output to Front and Rear speakers
surround41:CARD=Intel,DEV=0
HDA Intel, AD198x Analog
4.1 Surround output to Front, Rear and Subwoofer speakers
surround50:CARD=Intel,DEV=0
HDA Intel, AD198x Analog
5.0 Surround output to Front, Center and Rear speakers
surround51:CARD=Intel,DEV=0
HDA Intel, AD198x Analog
5.1 Surround output to Front, Center, Rear and Subwoofer speakers
surround71:CARD=Intel,DEV=0
HDA Intel, AD198x Analog
7.1 Surround output to Front, Center, Side, Rear and Woofer speakers
null
Discard all samples (playback) or generate zero samples (capture)
pulse
PulseAudio Sound Server
default
Default ALSA Output (currently PulseAudio Sound Server)

The easiest way is to choose how the device server PULSE Sound, Let’s try it with headphones giving two different commands but getting the same result.

speaker-test -Dpulse -c2 -twav -l1
speaker-test -Dfront:Intel -c2 -twav -l1

Voice on the boxes and print:

speaker-test 1.0.21

Playback device is default
Stream parameters are 48000Hz, S16_LE, 2 channels
WAV file(s)
Rate set to 48000Hz (requested 48000Hz)
Buffer size range from 96 to 1048576
Period size range from 32 to 349526
Using max buffer size 1048576
Periods = 4
was set period_size = 262144
was set buffer_size = 1048576
0 - Front Left
1 - Front Right
Time per period = 3,860220

so let’s check our system to 6 channels with the command
speaker-test -Dpulse -c6 -twav -l1
Let’s see what the various options:
- D Specifies the device to be tested and it is obtained by the different device names returned by the command aplay-L saw earlier. For example:
surround71:CARD=Intel,DEV=0
First part: name card

thus

surround71:Intel
Recall that the default value for the omission of option D is

Default ALSA Output (currently PulseAudio Sound Server) So PULSE (if we have one sound card entrust ourselves to PULSE)

- c: channel number to be tested configurations include 2,4,5,6,7,8
- t: type of test,
pink : noise
sine : Sinusoidal signal whose frequency can be varied with the-f option followed by the frequency in Hz
wav : you run the wav file in /usr/share/sounds/alsa/, nobody forbids to replace them with its own file.

- l : Number of test runs, if you omit it you use the default value of 0 is equivalent to the infinite loop, and thus to stop the test must press CTRL + C.

Commands list:
[Prompt]$speaker-test -Dpulse -c6 -twav -l1

7.24- Connecting remotely to the machine (TigerVNC)

To connect to a working session “already open” on your PC you can use different programs: vncserver , TightVNC and TigerVNC are all available in the repositories of OpenMandriva .
Let’s start with the search for and install the program via “Install and Remove Software”
We try tigervnc , you select
tigervnc ( VNC viewer to connect to other servers )
tigervnc - server (our server )

for proper operation takes only a few steps:

  1. Create a password for your user , then a terminal, give the command [prompt ] $ vncpasswd and then type the password again to verify it.
  2. From the PC you want to make controllable give the command [prompt ] $ x0vncserver - PasswordFile /.vnc/passwd
  3. From the PC to which we will connect to the server launch a vnc viewer any ( any that you can choose from) [prompt ] $ vncviewer : 5900 will be prompted for the password for VNC previously set and you will enter the desktop remote finding programs already running on it. The command for launching the VNC server can , of course, be added to a script. Just edit a file ( for example startVNC ) by inserting

# / bin / bash
x0vncserver - PasswordFile / .vnc / passwd

save it and make it executable ( right-click | Properties | Permissions and select the option EXECUTABLE

This script can be called from the control center KDE ADVANCED tab | AUTOSTART selecting add script. This will run automatically at every entry in our work session.
You can do the same on the gnome desktop manager and others .

7.24.1- PC with server X but without Monitor

If you use this simple configuration on a PC, for any reason, we wanted to put in our network but WITHOUT MONITOR, KEYBOARD AND MOUSE, we will have to change the configuration by performing a few simple steps:

  1. From the BIOS look for the entry that allows the PC to boot even without the presence of Keyboard and Mouse, The voice depends on the BIOS manufacturer, and other factors.
  2. Enable Automatic Login (MCC | Start | Automatic Login)
  3. Add the script to start the VNC server session startup, as previously seen.
  4. BUT ABOVE edit / etc/X11/xorg.con to have the following strings:

Section “ServerFlags”
Option “DontZap” "False" # disable (server abort)
AllowMouseOpenFail # allows the server to start up even if the mouse does not work
#DontZoom # disable / (resolution switching)
EndSection

Section “Module”
Load “dbe” # Double-Buffering Extension
Load “v4l” # Video for Linux
Load “extmod”
Load “glx” # 3D layer
Load “dri” # direct rendering
EndSection
Section “Device”
Identifier “VNC Device”
Driver “vesa”
EndSection
Section “Screen”
Identifier “VNC Screen”
Device “VNC Device”
Monitor “VNC Monitor”
SubSection “Display”
# Modes “1024x768”
Modes “1280x1024”
EndSubSection
EndSection
Section “Monitor”
Identifier “VNC Monitor”
HorizSync 30-70
VertRefresh 50-75
EndSection
Otherwise, without a monitor, KDM (as well as GDM, XDM, etc.) will remain “HUNG”, until you enter the monitor, without logging in automatically and effectively negating all your efforts.

Note: the following strings specify the resolution that you will use.
Modes “1024x768”
Modes "1280x1024

7.25- Shared Directory

Often there is the need to share directories with other computers on the same network, whether at home or in the office, more and more often the devices that we buy have this possibility, see, for example, media-center, televisions etc..

Sharing a directory it can be obtained in several ways, but the easiest is via NFS and SMB. It is absolutely necessary in a mixed network (linux / windows) ,or when it has to do with the above equipment that might I have a Linux on board but take it for granted that it should be used “even” with windows PC.

Let us see how we can make available a diretory on our PC.

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MCC section “Network Sharing”
select:
“Share drives and directories with Windows (SMB) systems”

Will appears this form of warning
press “OK”|

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Leave the default
and press “OK”|
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Here you must set up the workgroup and the name of the PC
and press “OK”

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Select Mode as ’security’ Share ’, so as to not have to enter password to access from other computers (only in case of need’ special use user).
In the Allowed Hosts you can leave it blank or enter 192.168.1. * To restrict access you PC on your network.

Press “OK”

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At this point we insert a message that the other PCs will see associated with our shared directory.

Press “OK”

Leave the default settings and
press “OK”

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A summary screen will take you to the end of configuration ... press OK|

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and OK again|

What you get is the initial configuration of the SMB service are now going to enter a directory to be shared:

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The End of the previous configuration we find ourselves in a window like the one shown here:
We use the “Add” button to insert a shared directory.|
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Press “OK”
The new entry will appear ’under “homes” Select it and press Modify

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Set the three items
public
writable
and
Navigable as “yes”

press OK and close all|


Remember to make writable shared directory
[prompt]#chmod 777 /opt/share/
and restart the service with the command
[prompt]#systemctl restart smb.service

NOTE: Please note that could be necessary to set FirewallID to get visible samba’s services
(both samba and samba-client) for the firewall “zone” that you are using.

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7.26- SYSTEMD – Manage system and services

Even OpenMandriva Lx uses the systemd init system.
(System Manager, and services for Linux)

let use commands to manage everything

7.26.1- systemctl – We manage services

The first command helps us to manage and monitor the various services
Let’s see some of the options available to us.

systemctl list-units (displays active services and their status)
systemctl - failed (See services alone failed)
systemctl status shows various interesting information such as
status
the cgroup assigned
the location of the configuration file (/etc/rc.d/init.d/smb)
programs and related cascade PID

[root@iron user]# systemctl status smb.service
smb.service - Samba SMB Daemon
Loaded: loaded (/lib/systemd/system/smb.service; enabled)
Active: active (running) since gio 2014-11-21 19:06:34 CET; 2h 12min ago
Main PID: 1704 (smbd)
CGroup: /system.slice/smb.service
├─1704 /usr/sbin/smbd
└─1781 /usr/sbin/smbd

NOTES:
1. the service name has to be written complete
2. the information is different if you run it as administrator

systemctl start/stop/reload/restart
Start, charging, stops and restarts the specified service
it can still be done with the command service start / stop / restart
for example

systemctl restart systemd-smb.service
or
systemctl restart smb.service

and also with the old command service

service smb restart
Restarting smb (via systemctl): [ OK ]

There are many other commands, with different features, ranging from the management of the system to dell’s creationbsnapshot backup

  • systemctl halt Shut down and halt the system
  • systemctl poweroff Shut down and power-off the system
  • systemctl reboot Shut down and reboot the system
7.26.2- systemd-cgls – We see the contents of CGroup

Giving as an administrator command

# systemd-cgls systemd:/system/smb.service
the terminal gives us the processes associated with the specified cgroup

systemd:/system/smb.service:
├ 16580 smbd -D
├ 16586 smbd -D
└ 16589 nmbd -D

Note that the list of cgroups created by the systemd you can get even launching the single command

# systemd-cgls

7.26.3- Analyze the boot - systemd-analyze

Among the various features that provides, what we will involve more and ’parallelization starting services, with which they should be able to start at the same time and in the right time different service (. Service) in such a way as to obtain a boot more quickly and efficiently.
Installing the package systemd-tools will be made available commands that will allow us to analyze the boot in its most complete form as a function of process and execution times.

The commands to use to do this type of analysis are:

$ systemd-analyze time
Startup finished in 6.624s (kernel) + 15.950s (userspace) = 22.575s

by an indication of the timing of the boot dividing them into three main parts Kernel, initrd and userspace.

With the option BLAME we’re going to check the execution time of each service there, but we have no indication of how many processes are started or run in parallel

$ systemd-analyze blame
5.852s systemd-vconsole-setup.service
4.516s network-up.service
3.637s systemd-fsck-root.service
3.364s mandriva-everytime.service
2.726s kmod-static-nodes.service
2.726s sys-kernel-debug.mount
2.725s dev-mqueue.mount
2.725s mandriva-kmsg-loglevel.service
2.724s dev-hugepages.mount
2.518s fedora-loadmodules.service
2.496s tmp.mount
2.015s network.service
1.160s systemd-udev-trigger.service
960ms resolvconf.service
722ms NetworkManager.service
707ms lm_sensors.service
…............................

finally with

$ systemd-analyze plot > boot.svg
create a graph that represent processes over time also giving detail of parallelization

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7.26.4- Journalctl : New Logs system

Systemd has its own logging system, thanks to which we can draw on any information, the command to filter the log according to the needs is journalctl
Let’s make some useful examples.

Check the boot
[Prompt]$ Journalctl -b -e
The option “-b” is about to boot, then you apply a filter to boot messages
And the option “-e” brings us to the end of the list of events, then the last.

If you want, you can download everything and put it on the log file without filtering

[Prompt]$Journalctl> Journalctl.txt

The maximum size allocated for the journal may occur in the configuration file
/ etc / systemd / journald.conf
In our case, will be
SystemMaxUse = 150M

7.27- FirewallID and firewall-applet

From version 2014 ,OpenMandriva will provide firewallID system for the management of the firewall; the system provides everything you need for a complete and detailed configuration of iptables rules, managing different types of safety zones.

The system has three components

  • FirewallID
  • Firewall-config
  • Firewall-apps

The first one, is the actual service can be activated and deactivated in a simple way directly from the applet that appears by default in the system tray.
Follows the rules set by the safety zones.
That you can find in /usr/lib/firewalld/zones
These files are in a xml format, easy and clear to read
- rw-r—r— 1 root root 239 feb 9 05:12 block.xml
- rw-r—r— 1 root root 293 feb 9 05:12 dmz.xml
- rw-r—r— 1 root root 209 feb 9 05:12 drop.xml
- rw-r—r— 1 root root 304 feb 9 05:12 external.xml
- rw-r—r— 1 root root 400 feb 9 05:12 home.xml
- rw-r—r— 1 root root 415 feb 9 05:12 internal.xml
- rw-r—r— 1 root root 340 feb 9 05:12 public.xml
- rw-r—r— 1 root root 162 feb 9 05:12 trusted.xml
- rw-r—r— 1 root root 367 feb 9 05:12 work.xml

These are the files that will be changed directly from the Setup Firewall-config program from which we can define the services and ports accessible from the outside, of course, different for each zone.

Through the applets you will go to a predefined set two zones associated with shield status up (enabled) and another one associated to shield status down (disabled)

Please note that, if you configure a services by MCC, for example samba server, or you configure a printer network, and they need to have access to a close port, will be automatically request to you if you want to change firewall setting and will be opened the right port you need, in an easy way.

7.27.1- The safety zones
7.27.1.1- drop

All inbound network packets are eliminated, there is no answer.
Only outgoing network connections are possible.

7.27.1.2- block

All network connections are refused entry.
Only the network connections initiated within this system are possible .

7.27.1.3- public

For use in public areas.

There is no trust in the other computer on the same network.
We accept incoming connections only selected.

7.27.1.4- external

For the use of external networks with Masquerading especially for the router.

There is no trust in the other computer on the same network.
We accept incoming connections only selected.

7.27.1.5- dmz

For computers in the DMZ that are accessible to the public.

Provides limited access to the internal network.
We accept incoming connections only selected.

7.27.1.6- work

For use in work areas.

Do you trust mostly on other computers on the network.
We accept incoming connections only selected.

7.27.1.7- home

For use in areas of origin.

Do you trust mostly on other computers on the network.
We accept incoming connections only selected.

7.27.1.8- internal

For use on internal networks.

Do you trust mostly on other computers on the network.
We accept incoming connections only selected.

7.27.1.9- trusted

We accept all network connections.

7.28- PLYMOUTH - The graphical boot

The system that handles the issues that we see throughout the boot process is called plymouth. The OpenMandriva Lx 2014 running version 0.8.8.
In case you want to replace the theme, and then the look with which the system is presented to boot, we will need to know some commands.
Let’s start by saying that the directory containing the themes resides in plymouth

/usr/share/plymouth/themes/
and that the list of installed themes (just inside the directory content themes you can see it with the command:
# plymouth-set-default-theme —list
which returns
details
OpenMandriva
text

Note that the command must be given as an administrator.
At this point we have to look on the repository or on kde-look the issue that most satisfies us.
If we find it on the repository (so to install software) simply select it and install it.
If we find it on the http:www.kde-look.org download and unpack the archive somewhere.
Take, for example, from the website http:www.kde-look.org the theme of the friends of MIB:
“MIB-Oxygen-Ultimate-Plymouth.tar.gz”
unpack it and copy it to the directory as an administrator in the right place with the command

# cp -rf MIB-Ossigeno-Ultimate-Plymouth /usr/share/plymouth/themes/
At this point the issue and ’available and we just have to set it as the theme to use, do we use the following command:

# plymouth-set-default-theme MIB-Ossigeno-Ultimate-Plymouth –rebuild-initrd

we can try it by restarting the computer

7.29- Some information about Kontact, Nepomuk and Akonadi

If like me you normally use kontact and kmail mail, and you have already taken steps to install it from the repositories, you should know that Kontact and its components, as well as several properties of plasma, have started using akonadi as a centralized body to store and retrieve different types of personal information.
This centralization will provide several benefits in the future, but as always happens in the initial phase can cause several problems.

So we keep in mind a few simple steps and indicate some command to see the current status of the various services.

All major components of kontact use akonadi, and every time you start each program will start automatically even akonadi.
You can check the status of akonadi komando with the following:

$ akonadictl status
Akonadi Control: running
Akonadi Server: running
Akonadi Server Search Support: not available

This is the state after disabling nepomuk and strigi from the control center of KDE in the Desktop Search.
However, because kontact to work properly, you have the need to have akonadi and nepomuk running.

Important Note: It is not absolutely necessary to enable strigi (indexing of the desktop)

accordingly from the control center KDE select
SEARCH DESKTOP and supply of NEPOMUK enabling and disabling Strigi, if you want.
We give the command again to check the status of akonadi:

$ akonadictl status
Akonadi Control: running
Akonadi Server: running
Akonadi Server Search Support: available (backend: Virtuoso)

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the control command that we used akonadictl also allows you to start / stop and restart the server, using the start, stop and restart instead of status.
Remember that you can start akonaditray (do it with alt + f2 or directly from the terminal) that will place an icon in the system tray blue from where you can stop and start akonadi, but also perform and restore backups, which we will see later, and start the configuration dialog akonadi configured in the options.
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In the first tab there are all the resources configured, then e-mail (pop or imap) section etc..
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the add button allows access to a list of substantial resources to manage.

The resource PERSONAL CONTACTS normally tip to the directory:
 /.local/share/contacts

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Here we do not change anything
….

Now we have virtually everything you need to run smoothly and many other programs like kde kontact native.

8- Settings and circumstances on 64bit systems

There would be no need to hold a separate section for these systems , just remember that the addition of the repositories you have to choose , of course, those 64bit .
Remember that in order to ensure compatibility with 32-bit programs that are not yet adapted , or with some commercial software , you must install the 32bit repository . See the relevant section .
In the repository 32bit we can find , for example, audio and video codecs win32 -codecs

The problems with the proprietary programs such as , for example, flashplayer ,is that they are are outdated. Install the plugins exactly with the same procedure used for 32-bit systems , then installing the package flash-player-plugin (you’ll see that it will be marked x86 -64 ), which will download the appropriate version of flash -player without any need for further manual intervention.

Some libraries such as those for the correct reading of the DVDs have a slightly different name from the 32bit version to identify them, and

Libdvdcss2 become Lib64dvdcss2

Libdvdnav4 become Lib64dvdnav4

Footnotes

[*The type of file system is a personal choice. The default is currently EXT4, but feel free to try the others.

[**It is not necessary to go beyond the 1GB , however, given the current capacity of the disks , if you want you can increase the size of the swap partition up to 2G or more, feel free.